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    空氣污染對智力影響!
    來源:http://www.rgttr05.top    添加日期:2019-06-25 15:24:59    瀏覽次數:
      俄亥俄州立大學(神經科學系博士生勞拉·豐肯最近與戴維斯心肺研究所合作進行了一項小鼠實驗。研究人員讓一組老鼠呼吸被污染的空氣——模仿人類的污染;另一組呼吸經過過濾的新鮮空氣。每天6小時,每周5天,總共10個月,貫穿了大多數老鼠。然后,研究人員對所有年齡較大的老鼠進行了為期五天的實驗,在兩分鐘內找到一個小洞,這個洞通向一個非常明亮的場地上的一個黑暗的房間。他們發現,長期暴露在污染空氣中的老鼠不僅需要更多的時間來學習挖洞,而且很快就會忘記。
      Laura Fonken, a doctoral student in the Department of Neuroscience at Ohio State University, recently conducted a mouse experiment in collaboration with the Davis Cardiopulmonary Institute. Researchers asked one group of mice to breathe polluted air - imitating human pollution; the other group to breathe filtered fresh air. Six hours a day, five days a week, for a total of 10 months, ran through most rats. The researchers then conducted a five-day experiment on all older mice and found a small hole in two minutes leading to a dark room on a very bright field. They found that mice exposed to polluted air for a long time not only needed more time to learn to dig holes, but also quickly forgot.
      解剖結果顯示,兩組小鼠海馬區存在顯著差異。污染小鼠海馬區神經樹突變短,樹突棘狀突變少,細胞結構不夠復雜。之前的研究已經將這些變化與學習和記憶的衰退聯系起來。
      Anatomical results showed that there were significant differences in hippocampus between the two groups. The neurodendritic mutations in the hippocampus of contaminated mice were short, the dendritic spinous mutations were few, and the cell structure was not complex enough. Previous studies have linked these changes to the decline in learning and memory.
      戴維斯研究所還發現,污染空氣中的氣溶膠能引發系統性炎癥,而促炎細胞因子在海馬區尤為活躍,而海馬區對炎癥損傷尤為敏感——結果可想而知。此外,正如勞拉的另一項實驗所示,全身炎癥也與抑郁癥有關。這項研究發表在2011年7月的《分子精神病學》雜志上,首次揭示了空氣污染對大腦的直接影響。
      The Davis Institute also found that aerosols polluted by air can cause systemic inflammation, and proinflammatory cytokines are particularly active in the hippocampus, which is particularly sensitive to inflammation damage - the results are predictable. In addition, as Laura's other experiment shows, systemic inflammation is also associated with depression. The study, published in the July 2011 issue of Molecular Psychiatry, revealed for the first time the direct effects of air pollution on the brain.
    濟南裝修污染治理
      2012年11月,在美國老年醫學會第65屆年會上,南加州大學社會學家詹妮弗·奧舍(Jennifer osher)報告了一項全國性的大型調查,該調查得出的結論是,空氣中的細顆粒物(PM2.5)對中老年人的心理能力有嚴重影響。研究發現,每10微克每立方米PM2.5濃度的增加,有一個0.36智商得分下降——所有參與者的正常平均一年時間更長,認知能力下降0.13點,下跌0.36點意味著三年的年齡。即使在控制了種族、性別、教育水平、吸煙狀況、呼吸系統和心血管狀況之后,結果也是一致的。
      In November 2012, Jennifer Osher, a sociologist at the University of Southern California, reported on a large national survey at the 65th annual meeting of the American Geriatrics Association, which concluded that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the air had a serious impact on the mental abilities of middle-aged and elderly people. The study found that with the increase of PM2.5 concentration per 10 micrograms per cubic meter, there was a decrease of 0.36 IQ scores - the normal average one-year time for all participants was longer, cognitive ability decreased by 0.13 points, and a decrease of 0.36 points meant three years of age. Even after controlling for race, sex, education, smoking, respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, the results were consistent.
      面對空氣污染,我們如何保護自己
      How do we protect ourselves against air pollution
      雖然環境問題的完全解決取決于全社會和國家的政策法規,但目前我們主動盡可能減少空氣污染的危害:
      Although the complete solution of environmental problems depends on the policies and regulations of the whole society and the country, at present we take the initiative to reduce the harm of air pollution as much as possible.
      1. 所以盡量安排戶外活動在上午和晚上,避免中午時段;
      1. So try to arrange outdoor activities in the morning and evening, avoid noon hours;
      2. 開車時打開空氣濾清器。如可能,選擇汽車空氣凈化器;
      2. Turn on the air filter when driving. If possible, choose automobile air purifier;
      3.保持房間干燥,避免霉菌——霉菌會漂浮在空氣中,被吸入你的身體。
      3. Keep the room dry and avoid mildew, which floats in the air and is sucked into your body.
      4. 避免吸煙的地方;
      4. Avoid smoking places;
      5. 在家里或辦公室打開你的空氣凈化器。
      5. Open your air purifier at home or in the office.
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